onsdag 25 februari 2015

Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment - PubMed - NCBI


N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an analogue and precursor of reduced glutathione, has been in clinical use for more than 30 yrs as a mucolytic drug. It has also been proposed for and/or used in the therapy and/or prevention of several respiratory diseases and of diseases involving an oxidative stress, in general. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with NAC on influenza and influenza-like episodes. A total of 262 subjects of both sexes (78% > or = 65 yrs, and 62% suffering from nonrespiratory chronic degenerative diseases) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial involving 20 Italian Centres. They were randomized to receive either placebo or NAC tablets (600 mg) twice daily for 6 months. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases were not eligible, to avoid possible confounding by an effect of NAC on respiratory symptoms. NAC treatment was well tolerated and resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of influenza-like episodes, severity, and length of time confined to bed. Both local and systemic symptoms were sharply and significantly reduced in the NAC group. Frequency of seroconversion towards A/H1N1 Singapore 6/86 influenza virus was similar in the two groups, but only 25% of virus-infected subjects under NAC treatment developed a symptomatic form, versus 79% in the placebo group. Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity showed a progressive, significant shift from anergy to normoergy following NAC treatment. Administration of N-acetylcysteine during the winter, thus, appears to provide a significant attenuation of influenza and influenza-like episodes, especially in elderly high-risk individuals. N-acetylcysteine did not prevent A/H1N1 virus influenza infection but significantly reduced the incidence of clinically apparent disease.

måndag 16 februari 2015

Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters hepatic mitochondrial membrane lipid ... - PubMed - NCBI

Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters hepaticmitochondrial membrane lipid composition and disrupts bioenergetics



Diet is directly related with physiological alterations occurring at a cell and subcellular level. However, the role of diet manipulation on mitochondrial physiology is still largely unexplored. Aiming at correlating diet with alterations of mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics, Wistar-Han male rats were fed for 11, 22 and 33 days with a rapeseed oil-based diet and mitochondrial bioenergetics, and membrane composition were compared at each time point with a standard diet group. Considerable differences were noticed in mitochondrial membrane lipid composition, namely in terms of fatty acyl chains and relative proportions of phospholipid classes, the modified diet inducing a decrease in the saturated to unsaturated molar ratio and an increase in the phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine molar ratio. Mass spectrometry lipid analysis showed significant differences in the major species of cardiolipin, with an apparent increased incorporation of oleic acid as a result of exposure to the modified diet. Rats fed the modified diet during 22 days showed decreased hepatic mitochondrial state 3 respiration and were more susceptible to Ca(2+)-induced transition pore opening. Rapeseed oil-enriched diet also appeared to promote a decrease in hydroperoxide production by the respiratory chain, although a simultaneous decrease in vitamin E content was detected. In conclusion, our data indicate that the rapeseed oil diet causes negative alterations on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics, which may result from membrane remodeling. Such alterations may have an impact not only on energy supply to the cell, but also on drug-induced hepatic mitochondrial liabilities.

fredag 6 februari 2015

Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age - PubMed - NCBI


Children younger than 6 years of age accounted for more than 80 percent of reports of suspected overingestion. While the outcomes were generally not serious, several hundred children were treated at health care facilities each year. A 10 kg child who ingests 50 mg fluoride (10.1 g 1.1% NaF gel; 32.7 g 0.63% SnF2 gel; 33.3 g 1,500 ppm F toothpaste; 50 g 1,000 ppm F toothpaste; and 221 mL 0.05% NaF rinse) will have ingested a probably toxic dose.

Overingestion of fluoride products in the home is preventable. Dentists and other health care providers should educate parents and child care providers about the importance of keeping fluoride products out of reach of children. Manufacturers should be encouraged by the ADA and the FDA to use child-resistant packaging for all fluoride products intended for use in the home.

onsdag 4 februari 2015

Livsmedelskontroll - Livsmedelsverket

Livsmedelskontroll - Livsmedelsverket

[urklipp från Livsmedelsverket]

Livsmedelskontrollens mål är att konsumenterna får säkra livsmedel, att de inte blir vilseledda och att informationen om livsmedel är tillräcklig och enkel att förstå.

Kontrollen ska vara effektiv, ändamålsenlig och likvärdig för olika företag och intressenter. Ansvaret för livsmedelskontrollen i landet delas mellan kommuner, länsstyrelser och Livsmedelsverket. 


Kommunerna kontrollerar exempelvis butiker, restauranger, skolkök och organisationer, omkring 68 000 företag och organisationer.


Länsstyrelserna ansvarar för kontrollen av 80 000 primärproducenter. De består främst av enskilda jordbruk, men också av exempelvis uppfödare, fiskare och bärplockare. Länsstyrelserna kontrollerar även att kommunernas kontroll följer lagstiftningen.


Livsmedelsverket är central myndighet som leder och samordnar landets livsmedelskontroll. Verket kontrollerar dessutom själv äggpackerier, musselodlingar, större mejerier, fiskanläggningar med mera och har ständig kontroll på alla slakterier, totalt drygt 800 anläggningar.
För att göra kontrollen likvärdig över hela landet granskar Livsmedelsverket kommunernas livsmedelskontroll. Verket kontrollerar också att länsstyrelsernas kontroll följer lagstiftningen.


Livsmedelslagstiftningen är, med några få undantag, gemensam för EU. EU kontrollerar att medlemstaterna livsmedelskontroll följer den gemensamma lagstiftningen. Det gör man genom Food and Veterinary Office, Dublin, Irland.

Hur livsmedelskontrollen ska gå till och vilka mål och prioriteringar som finns för kontrollen beskrivs i den Nationella kontrollplanen, se länk till höger på denna sida. 

tisdag 3 februari 2015

Nutritional factors in the prevention and management of coronary ar... - PubMed - NCBI

Nutritional factors in the prevention and management of coronary ar... - PubMed - NCBI


"Nutritional factors such as magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) appear to be significantly beneficial for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the prevention and arresting the progression of HF and cardiac arrhythmias. Additionally, ingestion of adequate amounts of protein and maintaining normal concentrations of plasma albumin seem to be essential for these patients. These nutrients closely interact with the metabolism of l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) system, essential fatty acids, and eicosanoids such that beneficial products such as NO, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, prostaglandin I3, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins are generated and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines is suppressed that results in platelet anti-aggregation, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and prevention of CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and stabilization of HF. This implies that individuals at high risk for CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and HF and those who have these diseases need to be screened for plasma levels of magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, NO, various PUFAs, lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (an endogenous inhibitor of NO), albumin, and various eicosanoids and cytokines and correct their abnormalities to restore normal physiology."

Das UN.
Nutrition. 2015 Feb;31(2):283-91. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Sep 4. Review.