torsdag 25 februari 2016

British Journal of Nutrition - Red meat from animals offered a grass diet increases plasma and platelet n-3 PUFA in healthy consumers - Cambridge Journals Online

"Red meat from grass-fed animals, compared with concentrate-fed animals, contains increased concentrations of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. However, the effects of red meat consumption from grass-fed animals on consumer blood concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status of consuming red meat produced from either grass-fed animals or concentrate-fed animals. A randomised, double-blinded, dietary intervention study was carried out for 4 weeks on healthy subjects who replaced their habitual red meat intake with three portions per week of red meat (beef and lamb) from animals offered a finishing diet of either grass or concentrate (n 20 consumers). Plasma and platelet fatty acid composition, dietary intake, blood pressure, and serum lipids and lipoproteins were analysed at baseline and post-intervention. Dietary intakes of total n-3 PUFA, as well as plasma and platelet concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA, were significantly higher in those subjects who consumed red meat from grass-fed animals compared with those who consumed red meat from concentrate-fed animals (P < 0·05). No significant differences in concentrations of serum cholesterol, TAG or blood pressure were observed between groups. Consuming red meat from grass-fed animals compared with concentrate-fed animals as part of the habitual diet can significantly increase consumer plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status. As a result, red meat from grass-fed animals may contribute to dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA in populations where red meat is habitually consumed."

British Journal of Nutrition / Volume 105 / Issue 01 / January 2011, pp 80-89DOI: (About DOI), Published online: 01 September 2010

Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis


"Demand for organic meat is partially driven by consumer perceptions that organic foods are more nutritious than non-organic foods. However, there have been no systematic reviews comparing specifically the nutrient content of organic and conventionally produced meat. In this study, we report results of a meta-analysis based on sixty-seven published studies comparing the composition of organic and non-organic meat products. For many nutritionally relevant compounds (e.g. minerals, antioxidants and most individual fatty acids (FA)), the evidence base was too weak for meaningful meta-analyses. However, significant differences in FA profiles were detected when data from all livestock species were pooled. Concentrations of SFA and MUFA were similar or slightly lower, respectively, in organic compared with conventional meat. Larger differences were detected for total PUFA and n-3 PUFA, which were an estimated 23 (95 % CI 11, 35) % and 47 (95 % CI 10, 84) %
higher in organic meat, respectively. However, for these and many other composition parameters, for which meta-analyses found significant differences, heterogeneity was high, and this could be explained by differences between animal species/meat types. Evidence from controlled experimental studies indicates that the high grazing/forage-based diets prescribed under organic farming standards may be the main reason for differences in FA profiles. Further studies are required to enable meta-analyses for a wider range of parameters (e.g. antioxidant, vitamin and mineral concentrations) and to improve both precision and consistency of results for FA profiles for all species. Potential impacts of composition differences on human health are discussed."

Średnicka-Tober, D., Barański, M., Seal, C., Sanderson, R., Benbrook, C., Steinshamn, H., Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J., Rembiałkowska, E., Skwarło-Sońta, K., Eyre, M., Cozzi, G., Krogh Larsen, M., Jordon, T., Niggli, U., Sakowski, T., Calder, P.C., Burdge, G.C., Sotiraki, S., Stefanakis, A., Yolcu, H., Stergiadis, S., Chatzidimitriou, E., Butler, G., Stewart, G. and Leifert, C. (2016) ‘Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis’,British Journal of Nutrition, 115(6), pp. 994–1011. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515005073.

måndag 22 februari 2016

Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. - PubMed - NCBI

"Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians."

Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb;65(1):35-41. Review.
PMID: 16441942

Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity. - PubMed - NCBI

Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful.

Ginter E.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109(10):463-6. Review.
PMID: 19166134

tisdag 16 februari 2016

Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners - Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental;elsca2=email&amp;elsca3=0026-0495_201603_65_3_&amp;elsca4=Genetics%7CEndocrinology%7CDiabetes%7CCardiology


Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations.


Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet, long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar.