tisdag 28 april 2015

Microbiome | Full text | Being human is a gut feeling


Some metagenomic studies have suggested that less than 10% of the cells that comprise our bodies are Homo sapiens cells. The remaining 90% are bacterial cells.

torsdag 16 april 2015

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases


Abstract: Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases.

Zhang Y-J, Li S, Gan R-Y, Zhou T, Xu D-P, Li H-B. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(4):7493-7519.

onsdag 15 april 2015

Dominic D'Agostino: Metabolic Therapies: Therapeutic Implications and Practical Application

Metabolic therapies that induce a state of mild ketosis from caloric restriction or the ketogenic diet offer neuroprotection against a wide range of pathologies, and continues to be an emerging strategy for the metabolic management of cancer. Severe dietary restriction of calories or carbohydrates is typically needed to produce a level of ketosis that achieves therapeutic benefits. Interestingly, the strategy to use exogenous ketones as an alternative fuel has not been exploited therapeutically. When administered orally in controlled dosages, ketone esters and other ketogenic agents can lower glucose and elevate plasma ketone levels comparable to levels achieved by the most rigorous ketogenic diets. Metabolic therapies in the form of ketone supplementation offer a safe, convenient, and versatile new treatment approach for a variety of diseases, including seizure disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial


"These pilot data suggest that a Ketogenic Diet is suitable for even advanced cancer patients. It has no severe side effects and might improve aspects of quality of life and blood parameters in some patients  with advanced metastatic tumors."

Schmidt et al.: Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial. Nutrition & Metabolism 2011 8:54

BMC Cancer | Full text | Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides



Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).
Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mmto 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume).
The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme.
Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further studies are needed to address the impact of this diet on other tumour-relevant functions such as invasive growth and metastasis.

PLOS ONE: The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer


Ketogenic Diet and HBO2T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

Targeting insulin inhibition as a metabolic therapy in advanced cancer: A pilot safety and feasibility dietary trial in 10 patients - Nutrition


"Preliminary data demonstrate that an insulin-inhibiting diet is safe and feasible in selected patients with advanced cancer. The extent of ketosis, but not calorie deficit or weight loss, correlated with stable disease or partial remission. Further study is needed to assess insulin inhibition as complementary to
standard cytotoxic and endocrine therapies."

Targeting insulin inhibition as a metabolic therapy in advanced cancer: A pilot safety and feasibility dietary trial in 10 patients

Fine, Eugene J. et al.
Nutrition , Volume 28 , Issue 10 , 1028 - 1035

A Low Carbohydrate, High Protein Diet Slows Tumor Growth and Prevents Cancer Initiation


Taken together, our findings offer a compelling preclinical illustration of the ability of a low CHO diet in not only restricting weight gain but also cancer development and progression.

Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer?


"Targeting Cancer Metabolism with Ketosis and Hyperbaric Oxygen" by Angela M. Poff


Ketogenic Diet in Advanced Cancer: A Pilot Feasibility and Safety Trial in the Veterans Affairs Cancer Patient Population


Ketones and lactate “fuel” tumor growth and metastasis


Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods


"Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol isolated from dried rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn & zingiberaceae family), which is responsible for various pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory and expected to have medicinal benefits in arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, cancer and lung fibrosis.1,2 However, clinical usefulness of curcumin in the treatment of cancer is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, hydrolytic degradation in alkaline pH, metabolism via glucuronidation and sulfation in the liver and in intestine, and poor oral bioavailability."

Chidambaram M, Krishnasamy K. Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2014;4(3):309-312. doi:10.5681/apb.2014.045.

Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet


Targeting cancer stem cells by curcumin and clinical applications. - PubMed - NCBI


Curcumin is a well-known dietary polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of turmeric, an Indian spice. The anticancer effect of curcumin has been demonstrated in many cell and animal studies, and recent research has shown that curcumin can target cancer stem cells (CSCs).

Curcumin, a promising anti-cancer therapeutic: a review of its chemical properties, bioactivity and approaches to cancer cell delivery - RSC Advances (RSC Publishing)


The development of new anti-cancer treatments with greater efficacy and fewer side effects remains a significant challenge of modern scientific and medical research. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol found in the dietary spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to inhibit cancer cell survival and proliferation, and to induce apoptosis without promoting the development of side effects. However, due to its sparing solubility and low bioavailability, curcumin has not yet been clinically used to treat cancer.

fredag 10 april 2015

The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. - PubMed - NCBI



Results are consistent with other studies showing that linoleic and total omega-6 fatty acids increase risk of prostate cancer. Contrary to animal studies, alpha-linolenic acid was also positively associated with risk. Further research will be required to clarify the role of these fatty acids in human prostate cancer.

Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. - PubMed - NCBI


Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet has beneficial effects on adiposity, glycemic control, and the lipid profile, thereby potentially decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Kakaoflavanoler - Hälsopåstående - Livsmedelsverket



Kakaoflavanoler hjälper
till att hålla blodkärlen
elastiska, vilket bidrar till
en normal blodcirkulation
(*****) (******)

Villkor för användning av påståendet

Konsumenterna ska upplysas om att den gynnsamma effekten
uppnås vid ett dagligt intag av 200 mg kakaoflavanoler.
Påståendet får bara användas för kakaodrycker (med kakaopulver)
eller för mörk choklad som tillhandahåller ett dagligt
intag på minst 200 mg kakaoflavanoler med en polymeriseringsgrad
på 1–10 (*****).
Påståendet får bara användas för kapslar eller tabletter innehållande
kakaoextrakt med hög halt flavanoler vilka tillhandahåller
ett dagligt intag på minst 200 mg kakaoflavanoler
med en polymeriseringsgrad på 1–10 (******).

(*****) Godkänt den 24 september 2013, användningen begränsad till Barry Callebaut Belgium NV, Aalstersestraat 122, 9280 Lebbeke-Wieze, Belgien, under en femårsperiod.

(******) Godkänt den 21 april 2015, användningen begränsad till Barry Callebaut Belgium NV, Aalstersestraat 122, 9280 Lebbeke-Wieze, Belgien, under en femårsperiod.”

torsdag 9 april 2015

BMC Cancer | Full text | Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines




Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-γ-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-α-tocopherol is highest in the plasma.


The effectiveness of RRR-α- and RRR-γ-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-α- or RRR-γ-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation.


Treatment with RRR-γ-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-α-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-γ-tocopherol to induce cell death.


This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-γ-tocopherol without damage to normal colon cells. The amount growth reduction was dependent upon the molecular signatures of the cell lines. Since RRR-γ-tocopherol is effective at inhibition of cell proliferation at both physiological and pharmacological concentrations dietary RRR-γ-tocopherol may be chemopreventive, while pharmacological concentrations of RRR-γ-tocopherol may aid chemotherapy without toxic effects to normal cells demonstrated by most chemotherapeutic agents.

söndag 5 april 2015

Nutrition & Metabolism | Full text | How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?




Diet has a significant relationship with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Traditionally the effect of diet on CHD was measured with the biomarker for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, LDL is not the only or even the most important biomarker for CHD risk. A suitably integrated view of the mechanism by which diet influences the detailed CHD pathogenetic pathways is therefore needed in order to better understand CHD risk factors and help with better holistic CHD prevention and treatment decisions.


A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted. From this an integrated CHD pathogenetic pathway system was constructed. CHD biomarkers, which are found on these pathways, are the only measurable data to link diet with these CHD pathways. They were thus used to simplify the link between diet and the CHD mechanism. Data were systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies of CHD biomarkers constituting 1 187 350 patients.

Results and discussion

The resulting integrated analysis provides insight into the higher-order interactions underlying CHD and high-glycemic load (HGL) diets. A novel “connection graph” illustrates the measurable relationship between HGL diets and the relative risks attributed to the important CHD serological biomarkers.
The “connection graph” vividly shows that HGL diets not only influence the lipid and metabolic biomarkers, but also the inflammation, coagulation and vascular function biomarkers in an important way.


A focus primarily on the low density lipoprotein cholesterol biomarker for CHD risk has led to the traditional guidelines of CHD dietary recommendations. This has however inadvertently led to HGL diets. The influence of HGL diets on the other CHD biomarkers is not always fully appreciated. Thus, new diets or other interventions which address the full integrated CHD impact, as shown in this paper, are required.

onsdag 1 april 2015

Assessment of diabetic nephropathy in the Akita mouse. - PubMed - NCBI


Successful Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes and Seizures With Combined Ketogenic Diet and Insulin


Type 1 diabetes and epilepsy: efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet. - PubMed - NCBI


Adults with type 1 diabetes eat a high-fat atherogenic diet that is associated with coronary artery calcium. - PubMed - NCBI


Treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications with a ketogenic diet. - PubMed - NCBI


The ketogenic diet for the treatment of myoclonic astatic epilepsy in a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus. - PubMed - NCBI


Effects of Carbohydrate Counting Method on Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome | Full text | Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit