tisdag 14 september 2021

Påverkar vitaminer och metaboliter risken för ö-cellsautoantikroppar och utveckling av diabetes? 2021

https://www.teddy.lu.se/resultat-fran-teddy/alla-forskningsartiklar-indelade-i-amnen/autoantikroppar/paverkar-vitaminer-och-metaboliter-risken-o-cellsautoantikroppar-och-utveckling-av-diabetes-2021

Frågeställningen i studien var om ämnesomsättningsprodukter så kallade metaboliter (aminosyror, fettsyror med mera) och vitaminer (vitamin C och D) i plasma var förändrade före det att en första autoantikropp utvecklades.

  • Resultatet från studien visar att barn som fick IAA som första autoantikropp vid ett års ålder hade låga nivåer av vitamin C och kolesterol före det att IAA utvecklades.
  • Lite äldre barn som fick GADA som första autoantikropp visade sig ha låga nivåer av sfingomyelin, en fosfolipid som finns i mjölkfett och som är mycket viktig för immunsystemet men också för hjärnans celler, centrala nervsystemet samt den neurologiska utvecklingen.
  • De barn som utvecklade antingen IAA eller GADA som första autoantikropp och hade låga nivåer av vitamin D, hade störst risk att få en andra autoantikropp och att utveckla diabetes på kort tid. Barn med GADA som första autoantikropp hade också låga plasmanivåer av diglycerider, lysofosfatidylkolin, triglycerider och alanin, vilket ökade deras risk att utveckla en andra autoantikropp och diabetes.

Studien visar att låga nivåer av både vitamin D och C ökade risken att utveckla en första autoantikropp. Andra biomarkörer hade också låga nivåer före uppkomsten av den första autoantikroppen. 

TEDDY har kunnat påvisa att vanliga enterovirusinfektioner kan trigga en första autoantikropp hos vissa men inte alla barn. Låga nivåer av vitamin D och C samt andra metaboliter tycks kunna bidra till att en virusinfektion utvecklar diabetes hos barn.



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onsdag 25 augusti 2021

Adenosine and Ketogenic Treatments – PubMed

Källa: Adenosine and Ketogenic Treatments – PubMed

 

”In addition, KD treatment elevates extracellular adenosine and tissue adenosine content in brain.”

 

Ruskin DN, Kawamura M, Masino SA. Adenosine and Ketogenic Treatments. J Caffeine Adenosine Res. 2020 Sep 1;10(3):104-109. doi: 10.1089/caff.2020.0011. Epub 2020 Sep 16. PMID: 32954218; PMCID: PMC7499891.


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Adenosine and Autism – Recent Research and a New Perspective | IntechOpen

Källa: Adenosine and Autism – Recent Research and a New Perspective | IntechOpen

”Specifically, we propose that persons with autism can benefit from increased levels of adenosine, a powerful inhibitory neuromodulator and the core molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).”

 

Susan A. Masino, Julia Svedova, Masahito Kawamura, Jr., Francis D. DiMario, Jr. and Inge-Marie Eigsti (August 17th 2011). Adenosine and Autism – Recent Research and a New Perspective, Autism – A Neurodevelopmental Journey from Genes to Behaviour, Valsamma Eapen, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/18957. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/18064

 



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Ketogenic diet with medium-chain triglycerides restores skeletal muscle function and pathology in a rat model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy – PubMed

Källa: Ketogenic diet with medium-chain triglycerides restores skeletal muscle function and pathology in a rat model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy – PubMed

”We found that the MCT-KD significantly increased muscle strength and fiber diameter in these rats. The MCT-KD significantly suppressed the key features of DMD, namely, muscle necrosis, inflammation, and subsequent fibrosis.”

 

Fujikura Y, Sugihara H, Hatakeyama M, Oishi K, Yamanouchi K. Ketogenic diet with medium-chain triglycerides restores skeletal muscle function and pathology in a rat model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FASEB J. 2021 Sep;35(9):e21861. doi: 10.1096/fj.202100629R. PMID: 34416029.


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onsdag 11 augusti 2021

Intake of Ultraprocessed Foods Among US YouthsHealth Concerns and Opportunities for Research and Policy

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2782880

”The potential implications for future health are significant. Childhood is a critical period for biological development and the establishment of dietary behaviors. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found that higher intake of ultraprocessed foods is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes in adults and with overweight or obesity in children”

Meyer KA, Taillie LS. Intake of Ultraprocessed Foods Among US Youths: Health Concerns and Opportunities for Research and Policy. JAMA.2021;326(6):485–487. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.9845



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tisdag 29 juni 2021

Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and Exercise Increase Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Trial

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31700717/

Conclusion This study shows the short-term beneficial effects of carbohydrate-restricted diet on serum BDNF and executive function in those individuals characterized with MetS. We have shown that the addition of exercise can further improve neuroprotection and cognitive function beyond the results of diet alone.

Gyorkos A, Baker MH, Miutz LN, Lown DA, Jones MA, Houghton-Rahrig LD. Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and Exercise Increase Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Cureus. 2019 Sep 9;11(9):e5604. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5604. PMID: 31700717; PMCID: PMC6822553.



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söndag 6 juni 2021

Induction of ketosis as a potential therapeutic option to limit hyperglycemia and prevent cytokine storm in COVID-19

Källa: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416786

”Abstract

The severe form of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is characterized by cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension have, as minor common denominators, chronic low-grade inflammation and high plasma myeloperoxidase levels, which could be linked to pulmonary phagocytic hyperactivation and CSS. The hyperactivation of M1 macrophages with a proinflammatory phenotype, which is linked to aerobic glycolysis, leads to the recruitment of monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets from circulating blood and plays a crucial role in thrombo-inflammation (as recently demonstrated in COVID-19) through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and monocyte-platelet aggregates, which could be responsible for DIC. The modulation of glucose availability for activated M1 macrophages by means of a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) could represent a possible metabolic tool for reducing adenosine triphosphate production from aerobic glycolysis in the M1 macrophage phenotype during the exudative phase. This approach could reduce the overproduction of cytokines and, consequently, the accumulation of neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets from the blood. Second, an EKD could be advantageous for the metabolism of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages because these cells predominantly express oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and are best fed by the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria. An EKD could guarantee the availability of free fatty acids, which are an optimal fuel supply for these cells. Third, an EKD, which could reduce high lactate formation by macrophages due to glycolysis, could favor the production of interferon type I, which are inhibited by excessive lactate production. From a practical point of view, the hypothesis, in addition to being proven in clinical studies, must obviously take into account the contraindications of an EKD, particularly type 1 or 2 diabetes treated with drugs that can cause hypoglycemia, to avoid the risk for side effects of the diet.”

Sukkar SG, Bassetti M. Induction of ketosis as a potential therapeutic option to limit hyperglycemia and prevent cytokine storm in COVID-19. Nutrition. 2020;79-80:110967. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.110967



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måndag 31 maj 2021

Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients

 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33668240/


 Conclusions: This study confirms that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. The detection of low vitamin D levels also in younger COVID-19 patients with less comorbidities further suggests vitamin D deficiency as crucial risk factor at any age.


Sulli A, Gotelli E, Casabella A, Paolino S, Pizzorni C, Alessandri E, Grosso M, Ferone D, Smith V, Cutolo M. Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 24;13(3):717. doi: 10.3390/nu13030717. PMID: 33668240; PMCID: PMC7996150.

torsdag 27 maj 2021

Intermittent fasting in mice effective at promoting long term memory retention: Intermittent fasting in mice demonstrably more effective at promoting long term memory retention -- ScienceDaily

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210524215527.htm

 "Over the course of three months, the mice in the IF group demonstrated improved long-term memory retention compared to the other groups. When the brains of these mice were studied, it was apparent that the Klotho gene was upregulated, and neurogenesis increased compared to those that were on the CR diet." 

King's College London. (2021, May 24). Intermittent fasting in mice effective at promoting long term memory retention: Intermittent fasting in mice demonstrably more effective at promoting long term memory retention. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 27, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210524215527.htm

måndag 17 maj 2021

Anti-aging effect of DL-β-hydroxybutyrate against hepatic cellular senescence induced by D-galactose or γ-irradiation via autophagic flux stimulation in male rats - ScienceDirect

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494320302855

 

"Taken together, these findings suggest that βOHB may be useful in combating hepatic cellular senescence induced by d-galactose or γ-irradiation via autophagy dependent mechanisms."


 Habieb, M. E., Mohamed, M. A., El Gamal, D. M., Hawas, A. M. & Mohamed, T. M. (2021). Anti-aging effect of DL-β-hydroxybutyrate against hepatic cellular senescence induced by D-galactose or γ-irradiation via autophagic flux stimulation in male rats. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 92, s. 104288. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104288

STEM-talk Podcast - EPISODE 122: JAMES KIRKLAND ON TARGETING SENESCENT CELLS TO REVERSE AGE-RELATED DISEASES

 IHMC STEM-Talk Podcast Episode 122

 

"As senescent cells build up in the body, they promote cellular aging and a host of chronic conditions related to aging, such as dementia, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and arthritis. In today’s interview, we focus on Jim’s 2015 study where he and his colleagues at Mayo were the first to report on the potential of senolytic drugs to selectively kill zombie senescent cells. Jim’s paper in Aging Cell has been hailed as a major breakthrough in aging research."



The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease - PubMed

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25686106/


"Our findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be linked to BHB-mediated inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome"


Youm YH, Nguyen KY, Grant RW, et al. The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease. Nat Med. 2015;21(3):263-269. doi:10.1038/nm.3804

A drug that can stop tumors from growing -- ScienceDaily

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210407174307.htm

 

Summary:
Scientists detail new work on NLRP3, an intracellular complex that has been found to participate in melanoma-mediated inflammation, leading to tumor growth and progression. By inhibiting NLRP3, the researchers found, they can reduce inflammation and the resultant tumor expansion.
 
 

 University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. (2021, April 7). A drug that can stop tumors from growing. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 16, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210407174307.htm

måndag 12 april 2021

A low carbohydrate, high protein diet slows tumor growth and prevents cancer initiation

 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21673053/


 Strikingly, in a genetically engineered mouse model of HER-2/neu-induced mammary cancer, tumor penetrance in mice on a Western diet was nearly 50% by the age of 1 year whereas no tumors were detected in mice on the low CHO diet. This difference was associated with weight gains in mice on the Western diet not observed in mice on the low CHO diet.”

 Taken together, our findings offer a compelling preclinical illustration of the ability of a low CHO diet in not only restricting weight gain but also cancer development and progression”


Ho VW, Leung K, Hsu A, Luk B, Lai J, Shen SY, Minchinton AI, Waterhouse D, Bally MB, Lin W, Nelson BH, Sly LM, Krystal G. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet slows tumor growth and prevents cancer initiation. Cancer Res. 2011 Jul 1;71(13):4484-93. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3973. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PMID: 21673053.